International and national mechanisms for the protection of human rights
International Human Rights Mechanism
Universal Human Rights Mechanism
The United Nations Organization (UN), being an international universal organization, has a universal international human rights mechanism and an interdisciplinary structure.
Both the principal organs and the subsidiary organs of the United Nations deal with the protection of human rights to some extent.
The UN General Assembly calls on member states to take action on human rights issues through the adoption of resolutions in the field of human rights.
One of the main functions of the General Assembly is to organize and develop recommendations for the study of human rights in order to promote the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms without discrimination on the basis of race, sex, language and religion.
The General Assembly adopts conventions, declarations and various resolutions on human rights, accepts and considers reports of UN bodies.
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) ensures that fundamental human rights and freedoms are observed and respected.
The Economic and Social Council may make recommendations and establish subsidiary bodies - committees and commissions for the promotion and respect of fundamental human rights and freedoms.
The Human Rights Council was established by resolution 60/251 of the UN General Assembly on March 5, 2006 to discuss incidents and practices related to gross and systematic violations of human rights. Based on this resolution, the Council conducts the Universal Periodic Review of the fulfillment of each state's human rights responsibilities, thereby ensuring universal and equal treatment for all states. In other words, every four years all countries submit to the Council their national reports on all aspects of human rights under the Universal Periodic Review.
The Council shall, without distinction, justice and equality, assist in the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, examine cases of violations of human rights and make its recommendations.
The Council establishes a specific procedure for reviewing systematic and reliably confirmed cases of gross violation of human rights.
The UN Council appoints a Special Rapporteur, who is an independent human rights expert appointed to study and report on a particular country or situation in a particular country. To date, 44 special rapporteur specializing in various areas of human rights.
The Commission on the Status of Women submits to the Economic and Social Council recommendations and reports on the promotion of women's rights in the political, economic, civil, social and educational fields, as well as in the field of women's rights. Prepares recommendations and proposals for taking action on the most important issues.
UN Women is the United Nations organization dedicated to promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women. UN Women was created around the world to meet their needs. This structure helps UN member states to achieve gender equality in accordance with international standards and cooperates with governments and civil society institutions in the development of laws, policies and programs on women's rights.
The High Commissioner for Human Rights has primary responsibility for the work of the United Nations under the direction of the Secretary-General. As High Commissioner, the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and the Human Rights Council are governed by the overall powers, tasks and decisions of the Council. The High Commissioner takes an active part in global efforts to solve any human rights problem and prevent human rights violations.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is following its plan of action to implement the Universal Declaration for the Protection and Development of Children.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Culture (UNESCO) is working to promote the right to take part in cultural life. UNESCO consistently implements programs to combat illiteracy in education, which is one of the key areas of its activities.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) develops international measures and programs to improve working and living conditions, as well as to expand employment opportunities. The ILO conventions and recommendations, in turn, are intended for member states, reflecting their willingness to incorporate national legislation relating to the ILO.
World Health Organization (WHO) is the main specialized organization for the promotion and protection of the human right to health.
In the UN human rights system, human rights conventions (treaties) are based on individual human rights treaties and control the implementation of specific treaty provisions by their member states. In particular, the Republic of Uzbekistan cooperates with the following committees to fulfill its obligations:
Human Rights Committee - International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR);
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights - International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR);
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination - in accordance with the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD);
Committee against Torture - under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment;
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women - Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
Committee on the Rights of the Child - Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities - Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities(CRPD)
The main task of the committees is to consider reports from Member States on legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures to implement the Covenant and the conventions. All Member States are required to submit their reports to the committees on the extent to which their rights are granted.
Regional Human Rights Mechanism
Beyond security, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) is also working to protect human rights. It seeks to recognize and implement the principles set out in UN human rights and protection instruments. His collaboration with the UN helps expand the scope of human rights work.
The OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights monitors elections and promotes the formation of national electoral bodies, promotes the development of technical assistance to national human rights institutions, and promotes the establishment of non-governmental organizations and civil society in various countries.
The Institute of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities also plays an important role in conflict prevention and resolution. The High Commissioner takes steps to analyze and resolve disputes as soon as possible. Calls on conflicting parties to avoid conflict through consultations.
At the annual sessions of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly , issues related to the activities of the organization are developed, and declarations, recommendations and proposals are developed to strengthen security and cooperation in the region.
The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the largest Muslim-majority international organization in the world. Independent Standing Commission on Human Rights (NPCHR) was established in 2011 year as a specialized body for human rights.
The Independent Permanent Commission on Human Rights supports the efforts of OIC member states to improve legislation aimed at strengthening the rights of women, youth and the needy. In this regard, special attention is paid to the issues of ensuring economic, social, political, cultural and educational rights, as well as the elimination of all forms of violence and discrimination.
National Human Rights Mechanism
During the years of independence, the country has created a system of state bodies involved in the protection of human rights. In addition to traditional judicial and law enforcement bodies, the system has also established non-governmental human rights bodies, including national human rights institutions and non-governmental organizations.
The protection of human rights through the judicial bodies of the Republic of Uzbekistan is an integral part of the mechanism for protecting human rights and freedoms. The court is the most important tool in the system of restoration of violated human rights and freedoms. Guaranteed judicial protection of the rights and freedoms of every person and the right to appeal against illegal actions of state bodies, officials and public associations. The judiciary in the Republic of Uzbekistan operates independently of the legislative and executive branches, political parties and other public associations.
The country's law enforcement system, as a traditional system of state power, plays an important role in protecting human rights and freedoms.
In particular, the prosecution authorities of the Republic of Uzbekistan occupy one of the most important and significant positions in law enforcement agencies, including in the human rights protection system. The Prosecutor General's Office, a state body that controls the rule of law, not only performs the functions of strengthening power, but also performs an important social function of protecting the constitutional rights and freedoms of individuals and citizens. This is the protection of the constitutional rights of citizens from illegal actions or inaction of officials of state bodies, in the process of forming the rule of law in Uzbekistan.
The internal affairs bodies of the Republic of Uzbekistan are included in the system of law enforcement agencies. The main tasks of law enforcement agencies are the protection of constitutional order, public order and security, protection of property, rights and freedoms of citizens and enterprises, institutions and organizations from any criminal and other types of crimes. Also, the main tasks and functions of the internal affairs bodies include; prevention and suppression of crimes and other offenses, ensuring road safety, worldwide assistance in eradicating the causes and conditions that give rise to other offenses, organizing and carrying out work on the correction and re-education of convicts, their labor use.
The institution of advocacy plays an important role in the protection of human rights. The expansion of the mandate of the Institute of Advocacy testifies to the further improvement of the non-discriminatory mechanism for the protection of human interests, rights and freedoms and the strengthening of the foundations of a strong civil society.
In the system of ensuring human rights in the country, there are systems of the Virtual and People's Receptions of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which have become an effective mechanism for ensuring the rights and freedoms of citizens by considering public appeals from state authorities and other organizations through open communication between state bodies and the public.
National human rights institutions play a special role in the national mechanism for the protection of human rights. The composition of the national institutions includes the Commissioner Oliy Majlis of the Republic Uzbekistan for Human Rights ( Ombudsman ), Commissioner for the Protection of the Rights of Entrepreneurs (Business Ombudsman ) under the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Institution of the Oliy Majlis Commissioner for the Rights of the Child (Children’s Ombudsman) as well as the National Center of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Human Rights.
Non-governmental non-profit organizations also play an important role in the system of non-governmental human rights bodies.
The role of the mass media as one of the institutions of civil society in the protection of human rights and freedoms has grown significantly.